[EXHIBITION 展覽] Objectifying China: Ming and Qing Dynasty Ceramics and Their Stylistic Influences Abroad 瓷移物化:陶染域外的明清陶瓷

日期
09/12/2017 - 09:30 - 27/02/2018 - 18:00
地址
香港大學美術博物館
薄扶林般咸道九十號

香港大學(港大)美術博物館將於二零一七年十二月九日至二零一八年二月二十七日呈獻《瓷移物化:陶染域外的明清陶瓷》展覽。由港大柏立基學院贊助,是次展品來自港大美術博物館、新加坡亞洲文明博物館及香港海事博物館的藏品,探討國際陶瓷貿易如何在不同區域內傳播陶瓷的風格、形式及生產技術。上述的交流不僅戲劇性改變了亞洲與歐洲藝術的發展路向,更塑造出因充滿異域風情、工藝精湛且造型亮麗而備受珍視的陶瓷。

數千年來,中國為全球帶來最優質的瓷器。優雅、耐熱及耐潮的中國瓷器造型多變、色彩斑斕,既被積極搜羅,亦備受世界各地的工匠爭相模仿。從六世紀至二十世紀,中國各地的窯產量豐富,從華麗的宮廷陳設瓷,到碗、盤等日用瓷,甚至遠銷至東南亞、日本、韓國及伊斯蘭世界的外銷瓷,應有盡有。

直至十四世紀,少量的中國瓷器才首次經中東商旅踏足歐洲,作為獻給歐洲統治者的禮物。在工藝技術上,中國瓷器較以低溫燒製的歐洲陶瓷更為優越,故它們被視為極罕有的奢侈品、偶爾更會被鑲嵌上金銀,使其更顯貴重。十六世紀初,隨著葡萄牙建立來往中國的貿易航線,中國陶匠開始大量生產專為歐洲市場而設的外銷瓷,作為大規模出口貿易,包括絲綢、香料、茶葉及漆器的一部分。

中國的製瓷技術,如所有成功的發明般激發競爭。數個世紀以來,亞洲各地的窯持續生產各式各樣仿中國瓷器的陶瓷;歐洲人的嘗試卻遲遲未能成功,直到一七零九年,約翰‧伯特格爾才於德國邁森解開製瓷之謎。十八世紀末,歐洲各地的瓷器廠已生產出揉合歐洲與亞洲最優秀設計特色的瓷器。

The University Museum and Art Gallery (UMAG) of the University of Hong Kong (HKU) will present "Objectifying China: Ming and Qing Dynasty Ceramics and Their Stylistic Influences Abroad" from December 9, 2017 to February 27, 2018. Presented with the support of Robert Black College and objects from the collections of UMAG, the Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore and the Hong Kong Maritime Museum, "Objectifying China" examines how the international trade in ceramics spread styles, forms and manufacturing technologies throughout various regions. These exchanges dramatically altered the course of Asian and European art, producing objects prized for their exotic origins, superior technology and beauty.

For thousands of years, China has provided the world with porcelain of the highest quality. Elegant and resistant to heat and moisture, Chinese porcelain of various shapes and colours was eagerly sought—and just as eagerly imitated—by craftsmen across the globe. From the sixth to twentieth centuries, Chinese kilns produced everything from magnificent display pieces for the imperial court to vast quantities of bowls and dishes intended for everyday use, as well as for export to Southeast Asia, Japan, Korea and the Islamic world.

The first Chinese porcelains did not arrive in Europe until the fourteenth century, when small numbers were presented to the ruling houses of Europe via intermediaries in the Middle East. Technologically superior to low-fired European ceramics, they were regarded as objects of rarity and luxury, and were sometimes mounted with silver or gold to emphasise their preciousness. By the early sixteenth century—after Portugal had established trade routes to China—Chinese potters began to produce large amounts of porcelain specifically for export to Europe as part of a larger trade in silk, spices, tea and lacquer.

Like all successful inventions, porcelain inspired competition. Kilns in Asia had been producing a wide variety of ceramics in imitation of Chinese wares for centuries, but European attempts to imitate porcelain were unsuccessful until Johann Böttger unlocked the process in Meissen, Germany in 1709. By the end of the century, factories across Europe were producing hybrid works that combined the best features of European and Asian design.

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